Foundation Skills

Foundation Skills


The requirements set forth in this document represent what I consider to be “minimum” requirements for all dan levels when I consider the total scope of Hapkido as a martial art. It is my opinion that any well trained blue belt should be able to adequately meet these requirements. Therefore, any dan holder should be more than capable of exceeding these requirements. However, there may be those who may find them insurmountable. If that is the case, keep in mind that the nature of requirements or a curriculum implies that some degree of difficulty or challenge.

After reviewing the majority of our affiliate schools curriculums, I have established what I consider to be “across the board minimum” requirements. As the headmaster of our organization (IKMAF) and Hapkido Yu Shin Kwan, I must be comfortable that anyone promoted to any dan rank on my authority satisfies the most basic philosophical and technical competency in Hapkido.

Affiliate Hapkido schools may continue to teach whatever curriculums that the head teacher has established for his/her students. However, in addition to this all dan candidates must also satisfy my basic minimum requirement before any certification is issued.

The requirements as laid out below may seem lengthy but, in essence it’s not. I have laid it out in as much detail as possible to make it easy to digest. These requirements will be video taped in the near future and made available.

  1. Courtesy and Etiquette:
    1. Formal Standing Bow
    2. Informal Standing Bow
    3. Kneeling Bow
    4. Dojang Rules
  2. Wrist, Arm, and Breath Control Exercise:
    1. Wrist tempering excerices:
      1. Wrist turn-out
      2. Wrist turn-in
      3. Wrist spin
      4. Wrist flexion
      5. Hand shaking
    2. Live arm upward extension w/breath control
    3. Live arm downward extension w/breath control
    4. Arm turn-in
    5. Hand scooping exercise
    6. Finger Spreading Exercise
  3. Falling Methods (Nak Bup):
    1. Side Fall
    2. Rear Fall
    3. Front Fall
    4. Forward Roll
    5. Rear Roll
    6. Spinning Fall
  4. Stance/Postures:
    1. Natural Stance
    2. Walking Stance
    3. Front Stance
    4. Back Stance
    5. Tiger Stance
    6. Sitting Stance
    7. Twisting Stance
    8. Offensive-Defensive Posture:
      1. Offensive-defensive posture I.
      2. Offensive-Defensive posture II.
  5. Dodging Skills:
    1. Rear Head Dodge
    2. Side Head Dodge
    3. Drop Head Dodge
    4. Bob & Weave
    5. Angle Head (Slipping) Dodge
    6. Rear Body Dodge
  6. Foot Work:
    1. Shuffle Step:
      1. Shuffle Step Advance
      2. iShuffle Step Retreat
    2. One step advance and retreat
    3. Angle Step
    4. Angle Two (2) Step
    5. Switch Step
    6. Spinning step
    7. Flowing Step
    8. Twist Step
  7. Blocking Skills:
    1. High Block
    2. Inside Forearm Block
    3. Outside Forearm Block
    4. Low Forearm Block
    5. Low Cutting Block
    6. Palm Pushing Block
  8. Thrusting & Striking Skills:
    1. Forward Fist Thrust
    2. Reverse Fist Thrust
    3. Hook Fist Thrust
    4. Upward Fist Thrust
    5. Back Fist Strike
    6. Knife Hand Strike:
      1. Inside Knife-Hand Strike
      2. Outside Knife-Hand Strike
      3. Downward Knife-hand Strike
    7. Elbow Strike:
      1. Inside Horizontal Elbow Strike
      2. Upward Vertical Elbow Strike
  9. Kicking Skills:
    1. Front Stretch Kick
    2. Inside Crescent Kick
    3. Outside Crescent Kick
    4. Inside Downward Kick
    5. Outside Downward Kick
    6. Shin kick
    7. Front Kick
    8. Front Heel Kick
    9. Angle Kick
    10. Roundhouse Kick
    11. Side Kick
    12. Back Kick
    13. Inside Heel Hook Kick
    14. Knee Kick
    15. Low Spin Kick
    16. Jumping Front Kick
    17. Jumping Side Kick
    18. Jumping Roundhouse kick
    19. Jumping Back Kick
    20. Jumping Spin (Reverse Turning) Kick
  10. Ho Sin Sool (Life Protection Skills):
    1. Off-balancing methods:
      1. Push-pull (linear/circular)
      2. Breaking balance in eight (8) directions
      3. Triangulation
    2. Basic Wrist Escape methods:
      1. Upward Vertical Escape
      2. Horizontal Escape
      3. Downward Vertical Escape
      4. Upward Diagonal Escape
      5. Circular Escape
    3. The following are modes (situations) from which the below Ho Sin Sool are executed against. I have listed as many as possible. The candidate must choose at least 5 of the following modes to apply Ho Sin Sool Against. The 5 selected Modes must include at least 1 defense against a Fist Thrust and a kick:
      1. Taking the initiative (attacking)
        1. Opponent in natural stance
        2. Opponent in Offensive-Defensive Posture
      2. Same side wrist seizure
      3. Cross hand wrist seizure
      4. Double Wrist Seizure
      5. Inverted (thumb down) same side wrist seizure
      6. Same side wrist seizure (defender’s hands up in offensive-defensive posture [ODP])
      7. Cross hand wrist seizure (defender’s hand up in ODP)
      8. Double wrist seizure (defender’s hands up in ODP)
      9. Lapel (right), Sleeve Hold (left)
      10. Lower Sleeve Seizure
      11. Middle Sleeve Seizure
      12. Upper Sleeve Seizure
      13. Rear Collar Seizure
      14. Single Lapel Seizure
      15. Single Lapel Seizure-Thumb Down
      16. Front Double lapel Seizure
      17. Flank (Side) Clothing Seizure
      18. Nape and elbow hold
      19. Upper arm and waist hold
      20. Neck hold
      21. Body hold (front/rear)
      22. Lead fist Thrust
      23. Reverse Fist Thrust
      24. Hook Thrust
      25. Front Kick
      26. Side Kick
      27. Roundhouse Kick
      28. Back Kick
      29. Spinning Kick
      30. Upward Fist Thrust
      31. Lead Fist, Reverse Fist Combination
      32. Lapel Seizure, Reverse Fist Trust
      33. Guard position
      34. Mount position
  11. Immobiliztion/Throwing Skills:
    1. Wrist Turn-Out Immobilization
    2. Elbow Pressure Immobilization
    3. Wrist Spin Immobilization
    4. Wrist Turn-In Immobilization
    5. Wrist Pressure Immobilization
    6. Four-Corner Immobilization
    7. Heaven and Earth Throw
    8. Rear Drop
    9. Rotary Throw
    10. Entering Throw
    11. Winding Throw
    12. Floating Throw
    13. Corner Drop
  12. Basic Body Throwing skills:
    1. Leg reaping throw
    2. Hip throw
    3. Shoulder throw
    4. Body Drop
    5. Reaping Lion Throw
    6. Stomach Throw
    7. Shoulder Carry Throw
    8. Ankle Sweep (Inner/Outer)• The candidate must be able to apply each of the above skills against a push/pull force and respond with “entering”, “spinning”, and “taking the initiative”.
      • Each skill must end with an appropriate finishing hold, pin, and or strike
      • The candidate must demonstrate reversals and counters of each skill
      • Each skill must be executed in at least five (5) encounters, i.e. against a same-side wrist seizure, a cross hand wrist seizure, a lead fist thrust, downward strike.
  13. Pinning and Strangulation Skills:
    1. Knee pin
    2. Side collar hold:
      1. Entangled (fig. 4) Arm Lock
      2. Arm Bar
    3. Side Body Pin:
      1. Entangled (fig. 4) Arm Lock
    4. Supine Elbow Immobilization (Arm Bar):
      1. From Standing Position
      2. From the Mount Position
    5. Knee Immobilization (Knee Bar):
      1. From Standing/kneeling (inside the guard) Position
    6. Ankle hold:
      1. From Standing/kneeling (inside the guard) position
    7. Heel hook immobilization:
      1. From Standing/Kneeling (inside the guard) position
    8. Entangled (fig. 4) Arm Lock
    9. Rear Sliding Collar Strangle
    10. Rear Naked Strangle
    11. Front Cross Strangle
    12. Front Sliding Collar Strangle
  14. Sparring:
    1. Free Sparring (no grappling)
    2. Grappling (no percussion skills)
    3. Combined percussion and grappling
  15. Weapons:
    1. Sword Skills
    2. Knife Skills
    3. Long Staff Skills
    4. Middle Staff Skills
    5. Short Staff Skills
    6. Cane Skills
    7. Rope Skills* Candidate must demonstrate competency in at least one of the above-listed weapons
  16. Gum Sool (Sword Skill):
    1. Sword Etiquette
    2. Sword nomenclature
    3. Basic Sword Grip
    4. Basic Downward Cut
    5. Basic Defenses against a downward cut (10)
    6. Sword relationship to Hapkido Skills
  17. Oriental Medicine:
    1. Basic Theory
    2. Practice:
      1. Basic Frame Bodywork
      2. Treatment of simple injuries and problems:
        1. Headache/head pain
        2. Digestive disturbance
        3. Wrist Injury
        4. Elbow Injury
        5. Shoulder Injury
        6. Ankle Injury
        7. Knee Injury
        8. Rib Injury
      3. OM resuscitation Skills
  18. Foundation Concepts and Principles:
    1. Yu (Flow/Fluidity: Water principle)
    2. Won (Circularity: Expanding and contracting radiuses)
    3. Wha (Harmony/Blending/Joining)
    4. Maintaining mental and physical balance
    5. Breaking opponent’s balance
    6. Triangulation
    7. Push – pull principlePendulum/balance wheel principle
    8. Leverage
    9. Torque (Decreasing Radius)
    10. Position of advantage
    11. What is “Yu Shin (Willow Spirit/Heart)”?
  19. History: Hapkido and Martial arts history